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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 100-105

Ocular manifestations of newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients

1 Eye Research Center, The Five Senses Institute, Rassoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Pediatrics, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Pediatric Growth and Development Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Radiology, Shohada-E-Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6 MAHAK Hematology Oncology Research Center, MAHAK Hospital, Tehran, Iran
7 Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
8 Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Fariba Ghassemi
Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin Square, Zip Code: 1336616351, Tehran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joco.joco_10_21

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Purpose: To present primary ocular manifestations in acute leukemia. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based study evaluated all newly diagnosed leukemia patients of three referral hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015–2016 and Mahak Hospital in Tehran in 2017. Exclusion criteria included the patients with the previous history of chemotherapy, cases of relapsing disease, and the patients with a history of ocular disease or other systemic conditions with ophthalmic manifestations. Results: A total of 85 patients (170 eyes) were evaluated in our study, including 29 children (34.1%) and 43 females (50.6%). The mean patient age was 37.84 ± 11.91 years in the adult group and 6.28 ± 4.70 years in the pediatric category. Ophthalmic involvement was seen in 27 patients (31.8%), including 6 pediatric patients (20.7%) and 21 adult patients (37.5%). Two patients (2.3%) had direct infiltration by leukemic cells and 76 patients (89.41%) of patients were asymptomatic. There was a correlation between ophthalmic involvement and platelet count and hemoglobin level. In patients with ocular signs, higher mortality rates were observed. Conclusions: At the time of diagnosis in acute leukemia patients, complete ophthalmic evaluation including dilated fundus examination is suggested as ocular involvement in these patients is common and sometimes asymptomatic. Ophthalmic involvement in leukemic patients should be identified in a timely manner, particularly in individuals with low platelet counts and hemoglobin levels, due to the potential prognostic relevance.

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