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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 347-351

A “Clinical Tetrad” for easy diagnosis of lacrimal canaliculitis

Department of Ophthalmology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Manpreet Singh
Department of Ophthalmology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joco.joco_307_21

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Purpose: To study the clinical presentation and highlight the “diagnostic clinical features” in patients having lacrimal canaliculitis (LC). Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with primary and secondary LC was performed. A detailed slit-lamp examination of the conjunctiva, lacrimal punctum, canalicular region, and lacrimal sac was performed. Common and coexisting clinical features were highlighted. The posttreatment sequence of resolution of clinical features was also noted. Results: Forty eyes of 36 patients (28 females, 77.78%) with a mean age of 59.5 years were included in the study. Thirty eyes (75%) had primary LC, whereas 10 had a secondary type. Previous misdiagnoses were noted in 34 (85%) eyes. The highlighting clinical features were medial eyelid edema (n = 40, 100%), pouting and hyperemia of lacrimal punctum (n = 36, 90%), yellowish canalicular hue (n = 35, 87.5%), and canalicular distention and expressible discharge (n = 32, 80%). None had features suggestive of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Thirty-two eyes (80%) showed all four clinical features of LC, a tetrad. At a mean follow-up of 14.5 months, the complete resolution was noted in 36 (90%) eyes. Conclusions: We propose a “clinical tetrad” of 1. medial eyelid edema, 2. pouting and hyperemia of lacrimal punctum, 3. yellowish canalicular hue and, 4. canalicular distention, and expressible discharge, for the easier clinical diagnosis of LC. The authors believe that using this clinical tetrad may be helpful for the diagnosis of LC.

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