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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 414-420

Comparison of the sedative, hemodynamic, and anesthetic effect of dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and etomidate on cataract surgery by phacoemulsification method: A randomized clinical trial

1 Department of Anesthesiology, Student Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
4 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Hesameddin Modir
Department of Anesthesiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joco.joco_158_22

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Purpose: To compare dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and etomidate in the induction of sedation and hemodynamic changes in patients undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification method. Methods: This was a double-blind clinical trial study carried out on 128 patients. Using the block randomization method, the patients were divided into four equal groups (dexmedetomidine, ketamine, etomidate, and control). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation, Ramsay Sedation Score were recorded every 5 min intraoperatively, in recovery, and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postoperatively. Moreover, the Aldrete score was measured in recovery time for discharge from the recovery room. Results: The mean age of participants was found to be 63.16 ± 6.07 years, and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, and body mass index, SpO2, and heart rate (P > 0.05). From 15 min after the start of surgery to 6 h postoperatively, the mean arterial pressure in the dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower than that in the other three groups, including ketamine, etomidate, and control (P < 0.05). The mean sedation score (Ramsay) during recovery and 1 h postoperatively was higher in the dexmedetomidine group compared with that in the control group, whereas the recovery time in the dexmedetomidine group was higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.001). In addition, the amount of propofol consumption in the two groups of dexmedetomidine and ketamine was significantly less than that in the etomidate and control groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, dexmedetomidine caused better hemodynamic changes with more reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, and patients in the dexmedetomidine group did not require any specific medical treatment. Moreover, higher patient satisfaction and longer recovery duration were observed in the dexmedetomidine group than in the other study groups. As such, it is suggested that dexmedetomidine be used as an adjuvant in cataract surgery for more sedation, analgesia, and optimal intraoperative conditions.

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