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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 460-464

Association of risk factors among nasal and orbital mucormycosis in coronavirus disease 2019 infection: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Ophthalmology, PSGIMSR, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, PSGIMSR, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Ramasamy Vidhyadevi
Department of Ophthalmology, PSGIMSR, Coimbatore - 641 004, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joco.joco_78_22

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Purpose: To study the risk factors of mucormycosis and analyze their association among nasal and orbital mucormycosis in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Methods: All patients diagnosed of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) with previous COVID-19 infection were included in the study. The details such as age, sex, presence of co-morbidities, and serum ferritin levels were collected. ROCM patients were classified into two groups, nasal mucormycosis (stage 1 and 2 of ROCM) and orbital mucormycosis (stage 3 and 4 of ROCM), and data were collected. Duration of COVID-19 symptoms, the time interval between COVID-19 infection and onset of ROCM symptoms, computed tomography severity score (CTSS) and usage of steroids were collected accordingly. The collected data were compared between nasal group and orbital group. Results: Among 52 patients, 15 patients had nasal and 37 patients had orbital mucormycosis. Forty-one patients were more than 40 years, 43 patients were males. Seven out of ten risk factors were found to be significant on comparing nasal and orbital group. Patients of age more than 40 years (P = 0.034), elderly diabetics (P = 0.014), poor control of diabetes (P = 0.003), high serum ferritin levels (P = 0.043), duration between COVID-19 and mucormycosis of more than 20 days (P = 0.038), CTSS of more than 9/25 (P = 0.020), and steroid usage during COVID-19 infection (P = 0.034) are prone to develop orbital mucormycosis. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables did not emerge as independent risk factors. Conclusions: Patients with severe COVID-19 infection along with other associated risk factors can be prone to develop severe forms of mucormycosis. We did not find them to be statistically significant on multivariate analysis. In the future, large scale studies are needed to know their significance.

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