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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2022
Volume 34 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 273-387

Online since Wednesday, November 30, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Segmentation Error Correction of the Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Images in Peer-Reviewed Studies Highly accessed article p. 273
Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Pasha Anvari, Sayyed Amirpooya Alemzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Johari Moghaddam, Abbas Habibi, Maryam Ashrafkhorasani
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_174_22  
Purpose: To assess the percentage of published articles reporting optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) metrics regarding the report of segmentation error correction. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted using the PubMed database for articles on OCTA imaging published between January 1, 2015, and January 1, 2021. All original articles reporting at least one of the OCTA metrics were extracted. The article text was reviewed for the segmentation correction strategy. In addition, the number of articles that mentioned the lack of segmentation error correction as a limitation of the study was recorded. Results: From the initial 5288 articles, 1559 articles were included for detailed review. One hundred ninety-six articles (12.57%) used manual correction for segmentation errors. Of the remaining articles, 589 articles (37.8%) excluded images with significant segmentation errors, and 99 articles (6.3%) mentioned segmentation errors as a limitation of their study. The rest of the articles (675, 43.3%) did not address the segmentation error. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ignorance of segmentation error was significantly associated with lower journal ranks, earlier years of publication and disease category of age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma (all P < 0.001). Conclusions: A significant proportion of peer-reviewed articles in PubMed, disregarded the segmentation error correction. The conclusions of such studies should be interpreted with caution. Editors, reviewers, and authors of OCTA articles should pay special attention to the correction of segmentation errors.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Incidence of Glaucoma after Combined Descemet's Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty and Retropupillary Fixated Iris-Claw Lens Highly accessed article p. 277
Tarannum Mansoori, Gandrapu Poojitha Mohan, Arjun Srirampur, Veerendranath Pesala
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_62_22  
Purpose: To assess the incidence of glaucoma after combined Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) and retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with bullous keratopathy (BK) who required secondary IOL or IOL exchange. Methods: In this retrospective case series, medical records of 22 patients who underwent combined DSEK and retropupillary fixated iris-claw IOL implantation were evaluated. Preoperative vision, intraocular pressure (IOP), postoperative IOP at different time periods, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were analyzed. Results: A total of 22 eyes of 22 patients (7 females and 15 males) were analyzed. The median age was 62 years, and the median duration of the postoperative follow-up was 106.5 days. The corrected distance visual acuity improved from a median of 1.85 logMAR to 1.68 logMAR. None of the patients had intraoperative complications. Three patients (13.6%) had dislocation of the donor tissue on the 1st postoperative day and were successfully rebubbled. Six eyes (27.3%) had graft failure and required penetrating keratoplasty. Eleven eyes (50%) had a sustained rise in the IOP, of which 2 (9.09%) had ocular hypertension and 9 eyes (40.9%) progressed to glaucoma. Conclusions: DSEK combined with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens is a good surgical option for the management of aphakic/pseudophakic BK in patients who require secondary IOL or IOL exchange. Regular IOP monitoring after the surgery is an essential, as there is a risk of IOP rise and glaucoma in the postoperative period. Clinicians should be vigilant and control the IOP to prevent glaucoma progression.
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Corneal Biomechanical Parameters after 60-Year-Old p. 284
Fereshteh Shokrollahzadeh, Hassan Hashemi, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_201_21  
Purpose: To determine the distribution of corneal biomechanical parameters in an elderly population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects above 60 years living in Tehran. The participants were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Corneal biomechanical parameters were measured in a randomly selected subsample of this population using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Inc., Buffalo, NY, USA). Results: Of 470 subjects, the data of 420 participants aged over 60 years were analyzed (mean age: 69.3 ± 6.5 years and range: 61–88 years), 363 (86.4%) of whom were male. The mean and standard deviation of corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were 8.37 ± 1.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.02–8.72) and 9.06 ± 1.70 mmHg (95% CI: 8.69–9.44), respectively. The mean CH was 8.27 ± 1.54 mmHg in men and 9.25 ± 1.28 mmHg in women, and the mean CRF was 9.00 ± 1.71 mmHg in men and 9.63 ± 1.37 mmHg in women. According to the results of multiple linear logistic regression analysis, CH had a significant association with younger age (β = −0.05, P = 0.032), female sex (β = 1.83, P < 0.001), reduced maximum keratometry (β = −0.22, P = 0.06), and increased anterior chamber volume (β = 0.01, P = 0.007). CRF had a significant correlation with a younger age (β = −0.06, P = 0.02), female sex (β = 1.01, P = 0.05), central corneal thickness (β = 0.02, P < 0.001), and reduced maximum keratometry (β = −0.39, P = 0.010). Conclusion: The mean CH and CRF values were low in this sample of the Iranian population aged over 60 years indicating the weaker elasticity of the corneal connective tissue.
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Long-term results of congenital cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation: A case–Control study of three age groups p. 290
Lukpan Orazbekov, Sabina Smagulova, Kairat Ruslanuly
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_245_21  
Purpose: To analyze the results of ocular refraction at the age of 7 years in children after congenital cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Methods: A study of ocular biometric data of 143 eyes who underwent lens aspiration with IOL implantation in unilateral (23 eyes) and bilateral (60 eyes) congenital cataracts was performed. All children were divided into groups according to the age categories at the time of surgery: Group A (0–12 months) - 43 eyes; Group B (12–36 months) - 45 eyes; and Group C (older than 36 months) - 55 eyes. An empirical reduction of the implanted IOL power was performed: an undercorrection of 20% in children aged 0 to 36 months and 10% less in children aged 36 to 60 months. Results: By age 7 years, the mean elongation ± standard deviation (SD) in Group A was 3.93 ± 1.64 mm, 2.13 ± 0.94 mm in Group B, and 0.95 ± 0.76 mm in Group C (18.7%, 9.5%, and 4.1% of the baseline axial length, respectively). There was no significant difference in axial elongation between unilateral and bilateral congenital cataracts (P = 0.32). The mean absolute refraction error (MAE) at last examination was 3.99 ± 2.12 diopter (D), 2.46 ± 1.48 D, and 1.59 ± 1.31 D in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. In infants younger than 7 months of age, by age 7 years, the mean elongation ± SD was 3.27 ± 2.86 mm (25.5%) and MAE was 3.44 ± 2.1 D. The prevalence of preoperative corneal astigmatism of 1.0 D or more was 48.95%, 2.0 D or more was 27.27%, and 3.0 D or more was 5.6%. There was no significant difference in preoperative corneal astigmatism between unilateral (1.62 ± 0.77 D) and bilateral (1.78 ± 0.90 D) congenital cataracts (P = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = −0.50–0.28). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) more than 20/40 was in 53.49%, 55.55%, and 74.54% in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions: Although IOL power was calculated in accordance with children's age, at the age of 7 years, there was a different degree of ametropia because of the biometric changes of the growing eye, and a higher rate of ametropia was observed more in the younger age group than in the elder age groups.
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Preoperative Intralesional Bevacizumab Injection in Primary Pterygium in Tunisian Patients: A Randomized Controlled Prospective Study p. 297
Jihene Sayadi, Dhouha Gouider, Meher Henchiri, Racem Choura, Nadia Boujelbene, Imen Abbes, Sana Khochtali, Imene Zghal, Ines Malek, Moncef Khairallah, Leila Nacef
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_146_22  
Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of a single preoperative intralesional bevacizumab injection as an adjuvant treatment before primary pterygium surgery. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled interventional study from January 2019 to December 2020. The study included a total of 60 patients (60 eyes) with primary pterygium. We defined two groups of 30 patients each. Group A received an intralesional injection of bevacizumab (Avastin), 1 month before surgery (lesion excision and conjunctival autograft). Group B (control) had only the surgical treatment. Patients were followed up 7 days (D7), 1 month (M1), 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6) postoperatively. Pre-, per-, and postoperatively, photographs of the lesions were taken, as well as a histopathological examination. The main outcome measures were the change in functional discomfort following intralesional bevacizumab injection and pterygium recurrence. Recurrence was defined as fibrovascular tissue growth invading the cornea. Therapeutic success was defined as the absence of pterygium recurrence in M6. Results: The mean age of the 60 patients was 54.17 ± 10.53. After bevacizumab injection, the preoperative functional discomfort score decreased significantly (P = 0.048). There was a significant improvement in grade and color intensity (P = 0.001). We noted no local nor systemic complications after intralesional injection of bevacizumab. After pterygium excision, the success rate was statistically higher in Group A (P = 0.047). There was no significant difference in either final best-corrected spectral visual acuity or astigmatism between the two groups. We noted a statistically significant association between recurrence and color intensity (P = 0.046), vascular density (P = 0.049), and the degree of elastic tissue degeneration (P = 0.040). Conclusion: A single preoperative subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab 1 month before surgery decreases the vascularity of newly formed blood vessels and hence may reduce the recurrence rate.
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Impact of heads-up display use on ophthalmologist productivity, wellness, and musculoskeletal symptoms: A survey study p. 305
Nicholas E Tan, Brayden T Wortz, Eric D Rosenberg, Nathan M Radcliffe, Preeya K Gupta
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_115_22  
Purpose: To explore how ophthalmologist productivity, wellness, and musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms are affected by heads-up display (HUD) use. Methods: A digital survey was emailed to the United States ophthalmologists. Questions covered topics including MSK health, surgical output, work hours, wellness hours, and factors related to HUD use. Results: One hundred and forty-four ophthalmologists responded, and 99 completed all eligible questions. HUDs were utilized by 33 respondents, 29 of whom submitted complete surveys. HUD users worked 353 more hours annually (P = 0.01) and performed 673 more cases (P = 0.07) than nonusers. MSK symptom presence (P = 0.79), severity (P = 0.80), and frequency (P = 0.86) were independent of use. Over half (n = 16/29) of users identified symptomatic improvement attributable to the device, mostly in the cervical and lumbar regions. Mean job stress was moderate-severe for both users and nonusers (P = 0.10), and there was no significant difference in wellness hours (P = 0.44). Retina specialists (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.03) were more likely to have operated with the technology. Nearly half of heads-up surgeons (n = 12/29) had obtained new equipment to target MSK symptoms, versus 1.4% of nonusers (n = 1/70; P = 0.0009). Most of those who operated with HUDs would recommend them to others (69.0%, n = 20/29), but 44.8% (n = 13/29) indicated ergonomic challenges. Primary concerns included awkward viewing angles, setup difficulties, and a lack of access. Conclusions: HUD surgeons reported greater work output versus nonusers without significant compromises in wellness or MSK health. User feedback suggests that the technology may lessen neck and low back pains, but barriers including cost and system inconveniences may impede adoption.
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Evaluation of Choroidal Thickness during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Longitudinal Study p. 312
Yousef Alizadeh, Zahra Moravvej, Reza Soltani-Moghadam, Maryam Dourandeesh, Mitra Akbari, Ebrahim Azaripour, Abdolreza Medghalchi, Ziba Zahiri Sorouri, Zahra Motaghinia
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_42_22  
Purpose: To assess the longitudinal changes of choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: The study included 23 eyes of 23 healthy pregnant women and 23 eyes of 23 healthy nonpregnant women. Choroidal thickness was measured manually with EDI-OCT at seven locations: The fovea, 500, 1000, and 1500 μm temporal (T) from the fovea and 500, 1000, and 1500 μm nasal (N) from the fovea. Measurements were obtained at each pregnancy trimester and 6 weeks postpartum and in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for the control group. Results: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 410.2 ± 82.4 μm, 434.8 ± 79.6 μm, 433.5 ± 80.3 μm, and 395.0 ± 71.1 μm in the first, second, and third trimesters and 6 weeks postpartum, respectively. In all seven measured locations, statistically significant changes were noted during pregnancy and postpartum in the choroidal thickness (P < 0.001). Choroidal thickness increased from the first trimester to the second and third trimester, after which it decreased at postpartum. Choroidal thickness was greater in the pregnant group during pregnancy and postpartum compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study indicated significant change in choroidal thickness at seven locations measured with EDI-OCT throughout pregnancy and 6 weeks after delivery. We showed that 6 weeks after delivery, choroidal thickness remains significantly higher than nonpregnant subjects.
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Association of Resolved Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy Lesions with Diabetic Retinopathy p. 318
Dmitrii S Maltsev, Alexei N Kulikov, Maria A Burnasheva
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_91_22  
Purpose: To evaluate the association between paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) lesions and diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Thirteen diabetic patients without DR, 13 patients with mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 18 patients with moderate-to-severe NPDR, and 20 patients with proliferative DR (PDR) were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, 6 mm × 6 mm macular OCTA scans of both eyes were reviewed for the presence of acute and resolved PAMM lesions. Results: Among diabetic patients with and without DR, 49 (94.9%) and 7 (53.8%) patients demonstrated small resolved PAMM lesions, respectively. The odds ratio for the presence of resolved PAMM lesions in the eye with DR compared to the eye of diabetic patient without DR was 21.8 (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval 7.0–67.8). In the mild NPDR group, moderate-to-severe NPDR group, and the PDR group, 11 (84.6%), 18 (100.0%), and 20 (100.0%) patients demonstrated resolved PAMM lesions, respectively. There was a statistically significant increasing prevalence of PAMM lesions as the severity of DR increased (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Small resolved PAMM lesions are a common form of ischemic retinal lesions in DR.
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Long-term Complications of Conventional and Chandelier-Assisted Scleral Buckle for Primary Repair of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment p. 323
Cagri Ilhan, Mehmet Citirik, Selda Celik Dulger, Mesut Ozdemir
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_109_22  
Purpose: To compare the outcomes of conventional indirect ophthalmoscopy and wide-angled visualization with chandelier endo-illumination methods in scleral buckle surgery by focusing on postoperative complications in the postoperative long-term period. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, patients who underwent scleral buckle surgery due to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were included in the study. Conventional scleral buckle surgery using indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed in Group 1, and wide-angled visualization with chandelier endo-illumination method in scleral buckle surgery was performed in Group 2. The outcomes of the two methods were compared. Results: The demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of the groups were similar (P > 0.05, for all). The mean follow-up time was 70.47 ± 20.32 weeks (52–116) in Group 1 and 64.89 ± 18.12 weeks (52–100) in Group 2 (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and redetachment rates of the groups (P > 0.05, for both). The cumulative rate of postoperative complications was more frequent in Group 1 (P = 0.011) despite being not significant in one-by-one comparison of the complications including epiretinal membrane, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, glaucoma, cystoid macular edema, foveal atrophy, gaze restriction, and macular hole (P > 0.05, for all). Conclusion: Using wide-angled visualization with chandelier endo-illumination in scleral buckle surgery, favorable surgical outcomes can be achieved in the postoperative long-term period with fewer complications.
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Association of RB1 rs9568036 and CDKN1A rs1801270 polymorphisms with retinoblastoma susceptibility p. 328
Fatemeh Azimi, Masood Naseripour, Ahad Sedaghat, Zohre Ataei Kachoei, Golnaz Khakpoor
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_125_22  
Purpose: To investigate the association of polymorphisms (rs9568036 and rs1801270) in the RB1 and P21 genes with susceptibility to retinoblastoma (RB). Methods: This case–control study was designed with 50 patients with RB and 50 controls. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify the intron 17 of RB1 rs9568036 and exon 2 of P21 rs1801270. Then, all the amplified fragments were subjected to directional sequencing, and finally, the association between genotypes and the development of RB risk and invasion was studied. Results: A statistically significant difference in genotypic or allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1801270 and rs9568036) was found between Iranian RB patients and the controls (P > 0.05). However, the frequency of genotype RB1 rs9568036 observed a statically significant difference in the RB patients compared to the control group, and the nonwild-type allele A increased the chance of susceptibility to developing RB by 2.92 times. Conclusion: The rs9568036 SNP in the RB1 gene may increase susceptibility to the development of RB in the affected patients. In spite of that, this polymorphism does not influence RB patient's invasion. Further investigation with a large enough sample size is recommended to validate this hypothesis.
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The Prevalence and Causes of Low Vision and Visual Impairment in School-Aged Children: The Shiraz Pediatric Eye Study p. 333
Mohammad Reza Talebnejad, Mohammad Reza Khalili, Zahra Tajbakhsh, Masoumeh Beygom Masoumpour, Hamideh Mahdaviazad, Elham Mohammadi, Maryam Keshtkar, Mohammad Hossein Nowroozzadeh
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_153_21  
Purpose: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI) in Shiraz schoolchildren aged between 6 and 12 years. Methods: In the present population-based study, stratified random sampling was used to select 2400 schoolchildren aged 6–12 years from all four educational districts of Shiraz, Iran. Using the definitions of the World Health Organization, VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≤0.5 logMAR (20/60) in the better eye, and blindness as BCVA worse than 1.3 logMAR (20/400) in the better eye. The low vision was defined as BCVA equal to or worse than 0.5 logMAR (20/60) in either eye. Data were recorded from a detailed interview and ocular examination of each eligible student. Results: The mean age of the students was 9.1 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of VI was 3/2001 (0.14%). The cause of VI in all these three patients (100%) was amblyopia due to high refractive errors (high ametropia and astigmatism). Regarding the main refractive errors leading to VI among these three patients, one patient had bilateral high hyperopia (compound hyperopic astigmatism), one of them had bilateral high astigmatism, and the other one had compound myopic astigmatism. According to a visual acuity of less than or equal to 20/60 in at least one eye, 9/2001 (0.4%) of children had low vision. Conclusions: This study revealed a low prevalence of VI in a sample of 6- to 12-year-old school-aged children. Amblyopia in the setting of high ametropia and astigmatism were the most common causes of VI.
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Clinical spectrum and management outcome of ocular and adnexal rhinosporidiosis p. 341
Md Shahid Alam, Neha Shrirao
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_33_22  
Purpose: To describe the clinical spectrum and management outcomes of ocular rhinosporidiosis. Methods: All histopathologically diagnosed cases of ocular rhinosporidiosis between January 2000 and December 2016 were included in the study. The lesions were classified based on the site of involvement, namely conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, eyelid, and orbit. The frequency and percentages for each of the lesions and the different treatment modalities were noted and calculated. Any recurrence and its subsequent management were also noted. Results: A total of 34 patients were included with a male-to-female ratio of 2.7:1. Conjunctiva was the most common site involved (19, 55.8%), followed by lacrimal sac (11, 32.3%) and eyelid (3, 8.82%). One patient had orbital involvement secondary to sinonasal extension. The mean duration of symptoms was 14.8 ± 19.1 months (range, 1–84 months). Seven (36.8%) patients in the conjunctival group needed scleral patch graft. Five patients (45.4%) with lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis underwent dacryocystectomy and modified dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). The mean follow-up period was 5.43 ± 7.9 months (range, 1–36 months). Five (14.7%) patients (2 conjunctival, 2 lacrimal, and 1 eyelid) had recurrence. Conclusions: Conjunctiva is the most common site for ocular rhinosporidiosis, followed by lacrimal sac. While conjunctival lesions respond well to complete excision with cauterization of the base, lacrimal sac lesions can be managed by a modified DCR. Eyelid rhinosporidiosis can mimic a neoplasm and should be considered in differential diagnosis in suspicious lesions, especially in endemic areas.
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A “Clinical Tetrad” for easy diagnosis of lacrimal canaliculitis p. 347
Manpreet Singh, Aditi Mehta, Manjula Sharma, Manpreet Kaur, Pankaj Gupta
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_307_21  
Purpose: To study the clinical presentation and highlight the “diagnostic clinical features” in patients having lacrimal canaliculitis (LC). Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with primary and secondary LC was performed. A detailed slit-lamp examination of the conjunctiva, lacrimal punctum, canalicular region, and lacrimal sac was performed. Common and coexisting clinical features were highlighted. The posttreatment sequence of resolution of clinical features was also noted. Results: Forty eyes of 36 patients (28 females, 77.78%) with a mean age of 59.5 years were included in the study. Thirty eyes (75%) had primary LC, whereas 10 had a secondary type. Previous misdiagnoses were noted in 34 (85%) eyes. The highlighting clinical features were medial eyelid edema (n = 40, 100%), pouting and hyperemia of lacrimal punctum (n = 36, 90%), yellowish canalicular hue (n = 35, 87.5%), and canalicular distention and expressible discharge (n = 32, 80%). None had features suggestive of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Thirty-two eyes (80%) showed all four clinical features of LC, a tetrad. At a mean follow-up of 14.5 months, the complete resolution was noted in 36 (90%) eyes. Conclusions: We propose a “clinical tetrad” of 1. medial eyelid edema, 2. pouting and hyperemia of lacrimal punctum, 3. yellowish canalicular hue and, 4. canalicular distention, and expressible discharge, for the easier clinical diagnosis of LC. The authors believe that using this clinical tetrad may be helpful for the diagnosis of LC.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Topical Minoxidil Solution-Induced Central Toxic Keratopathy following Photorefractive Keratectomy: A Case Study p. 352
Mehrdad Mohammadpour, Masoud Khorrami-Nejad, Mohsen Heirani, Majid Moshirfar
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_342_21  
Purpose: To report the clinical findings of unilateral central toxic keratopathy (CTK) associated with inadvertent exposure to topical minoxidil 5% solution 1 day after bilateral photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Methods: Anterior segment slit-lamp photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), pachymetry map, epithelial map, and manifest refractions were recorded. Results: This is a case of a 27-year-old male who underwent bilateral PRK and presented 5 days after surgery with the complaint of acute decreased visual acuity in the left eye (LE). His LE was reportedly exposed to topical ethanol-based minoxidil 5% on postoperative day 1, which he was using as a posthair transplant treatment. Clinical examination showed hyperopic shift, poor visual acuity, central corneal opacity, epithelial irregularity, central corneal thinning, and flattening on AS-OCT. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CTK. The patient was monitored with conservative treatment and demonstrated full recovery after 6 months. Conclusion: It is recommended to warn patients who have undergone refractive surgery concerning the use of ethanol-containing agents, such as minoxidil solution, because of the possible risk of CTK, a complication not formally recognized.
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Corneal Ectasia after Laser-Assisted Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction: The Case for an Enhanced Ectasia Risk Assessment p. 357
Siamak Zarei-Ghanavati, Samira Hassanzadeh, Renato Ambrósio
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_79_22  
Purpose: To present a case of asymmetric progressive corneal ectasia following femtosecond laser-assisted small-incision lenticule extraction. Methods: After obtaining a patient's consent, preoperative and postoperative findings were represented in this case report. Results: A 29-year-old woman presented with normal preoperative Placido disk-based corneal topography and tomographic findings. The corrected refractive error was −4.00 and −4.50 −1.00 × 177 in the right and left eye, respectively, with a maximal lenticule thickness of 87 and 115 μm OD/OS. Twenty months postoperatively, the patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye and mild ectatic changes in corneal shape in both eyes. The retrospective evaluation of the integrated rotating Scheimpflug tomography (Pentacam; Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) and corneal biomechanical (Corvis ST) assessment revealed moderate susceptibility for corneal ectasia in the right eye and a significant corneal ectasia in the left eye. Conclusion: This case corroborates the need for an enhanced multimodal approach to characterize the risk for postoperative corneal ectasia after laser vision correction.
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Pituitary Apoplexy Secondary to Thrombocytopenia due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: Report of a Rare Case and Literature Review p. 364
Kaveh Abri Aghdam, Zahra-Alsadat Abtahi, Seyed Ali Sonbolestan, Mostafa Soltan Sanjari
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_321_21  
Purpose: To report a 16-year-old female patient with pituitary apoplexy in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection-related thrombocytopenia in the absence of preexisting pituitary macroadenoma. Methods: The patient had been admitted because of respiratory complications of COVID-19 infection and developed thrombocytopenia, intense headache, and symptoms of cavernous sinus syndrome. Results: Urgent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain depicted a pituitary apoplexy. Conclusion: This case indicated that thrombocytopenia due to COVID-19 could be a predisposing factor for pituitary apoplexy in the absence of underlying pituitary disease.
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Unusual trigger for contractile movements of optic disc in peripapillary staphyloma p. 369
Nikolai V Nevin, Alexei N Kulikov, Ekaterina V Danilenko, Dmitrii S Maltsev
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_29_22  
Purpose: To report a case of contractile movements of the optic disc in peripapillary staphyloma. Methods: A 65-year-old female received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, multimodal imaging, and computed tomography. Results: The patient was diagnosed with peripapillary staphyloma in her right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity in her right and left eye was 20/32 and 20/40, respectively, with moderate cataracts in both eyes. Multimodal imaging revealed contractile movements of the optic disc in the right eye that were initiated by the circular rotation of the eye but by none of the triggers previously described in the literature. The patient reported no changes in her vision during contractile movements. Optical coherence tomography revealed a muscle-like structure in the optic disc during the peak of the contraction. Computed tomography did not reveal any abnormality of the optic nerve or the extraocular muscles of the right eye. Conclusion: Contractile movements in peripapillary staphyloma may be initiated by previously unknown triggers. The pattern of the contractile movements and optical coherence tomography findings support the muscular nature of these movements.
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Unilateral acute central serous chorioretinopathy with inactivated coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination: A case report and review of literature p. 373
Mojtaba Abrishami, Seyedeh Maryam Hosseini, Nasser Shoeibi, Hamid Reza Heidarzadeh
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_41_22  
Purpose: To report unilateral acute-onset central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) following vaccination with inactivated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine in a healthy patient. Methods: Case report and review of literature. Results: A 39-year-old male was referred with sudden-onset, painless, unilateral blurred vision in the right eye. His first dose of the Sinopharm vaccine was injected 2 days before. A complete ocular examination revealed central subretinal fluid (SRF) accumulation in favor of CSC in the right eye. Systemic workup disclosed no previous COVID-19 infection or any systemic involvement. After 3 weeks, SRF decreased remarkably without treatment. Conclusions: It is proposed that CSC development can be an ocular adverse effect of COVID-19 vaccination, although it is infrequent. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possible association between COVID-19 vaccination and ocular adverse effects, but vaccination is the best effectual measure against COVID-19.
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BRIEF REPORT Top

Lattice degeneration imaging with optical coherence tomography angiography p. 379
Dmitrii S Maltsev, Alexei N Kulikov, Maria A Burnasheva
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_94_22  
Purpose: To describe a series of cases of lattice degeneration of the retina imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Four eyes of four patients were included and evaluated with green reflectance using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and OCTA. In each case, the microcirculation of the retina and choriocapillaris within the lesion, as well as choroidal thickness beneath the lesion, were assessed. Results: OCTA showed regional loss of retinal perfusion and rarefication of the choriocapillaris network within the lesion and the presence of venous collectors in the choroid beneath the lesion. The choroid was substantially thinner beneath the lesion compared to the adjacent normal region. Cross-sectional OCT scans showed retinal thinning, vitreal adhesion, atrophic holes, and subretinal fluid within the lesions. Conclusion: Lattice degeneration is characterized by significant local changes in retinal and choroidal microcirculation which may play an important role in the pathophysiology of lattice degeneration.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Letter to editor: Prophylactic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after cataract surgery and corneal melt p. 384
Zaid Shalchi, Romesh Angunawela, Robin Hamilton
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_107_22  
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Reply to Letter to Editor: Prophylactic Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs after Cataract Surgery and Corneal Melt p. 385
Zahra Ashena, Mayank A Nanavaty, Ahmed Shalaby Bardan, Riddhi Thaker, Lucia Bascaran
DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_176_22  
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Vision-related quality of life in patients with inherited retinal dystrophies p. 387

DOI:10.4103/joco.joco_324_22  
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